How to Test Your Pool Water: Step-by-Step Guide - Pool Research (2023)

Testing your pool water is one of the most important pool maintenance tasks. Testing your water gives you a direct peek into the chemical balance of your pool and allows you to fix any issues that may be occurring. You should test your water frequently to ensure your chemicals are balanced properly.

First, let’s cover why testing is so important and what kinds of tests you should do. After that, I’ll dive into how to test for all the chemicals you need.

Main Takeaways

  • You should test your pool weekly at the very least and if there has been lots of rain or after a pool party.
  • Liquid testing kits, strip testers, and digital testing kits are the main ways to test your pool water.
  • You should test for total and free chlorine, pH, alkalinity, cyanuric acid, calcium hardness, phosphates, copper, and salt if you have a saltwater pool.

Why Testing Your Pool Water Is Important

While it looks like a pond, your pool is more of a chemistry lab. The chemicals in your pool can either keep it clean or make it potentially dangerous. Testing your water is the only way to know for sure what those invisible chemicals are doing in your water.

You need to test your water often. While it might seem like a hassle, it’s a good thing! The better balanced your water is, the less cleaning and water changing you have to do.

When and How Often to Test Your Pool

You can test pool water yourself, but if you don’t feel super comfortable doing that, you can also take a sample for professional testing when you open and close your pool. Most local pool supply stores like Leslie’s can test your water for you. The second set of eyes keeps it safe and clean. On the whole, you should be testing your swimming pool at least once a month in addition to when you open and close it for the season.

Regular testing is essential for your chlorine, alkalinity, and pH levels. It’s so significant that the CDC calls chlorine and pH your “disinfecting team.” The minimum testing schedule for pH and chlorine is weekly, starting before you open your pool.

There are other times that you should test for balanced levels, though, including:

  • After a rainstorm
  • After large groups have used the pool
  • Before beginning any form of algae treatment (pH testing is mandatory here)
  • After changes in the weather
  • After adding water
  • Before you close your pool
  • If you notice any issues with your water, like cloudiness or color changes

Some other necessary testing you need to do to maintain excellent pool water is for cyanuric acid (CYA) and calcium hardness. You also test for copper, iron, and calcium. We’ll also cover testing for phosphates and salt. I’ll give a schedule for these tests in the instructions below.

Step-by-Step Process for Accurately Testing Your Pool Water

Each section below will cover the basics and walk through steps you can follow. I’ll also cover how to sample your water correctly and use your testing equipment.

Step 1: Gather a Proper Water Sample

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Take samples far from your skimmer and return jets and well below the surface (try for the middle). Use a clean container test container. If you bring the sample to a store, make sure it has a lid.

  1. Hold the container in your hand, like in the picture above, outside of the water. Now, turn the opening down towards the bottom of the pool.
  2. Push the collection container into the water, well below the surface. Keep it facing the bottom. You want air trapped inside of it at this point.
  3. Turn your hand below the surface, so the air escapes and looks like the picture above.

How to Use Water Testing Kits

There are three main kinds of test kits:

  • Liquid Testing Kits
  • Testing Strips
  • Digital Testing Kits

How to Use Liquid Testing Kits

Liquid testing kits cover most homeowners’ basic needs for testing regularly. They are accurate when used correctly. However, they are also finicky and can give you inaccurate results due to user error.

For testing pH, your kit needs to have two things: Orthotolidine (OTO) to test chlorine and phenol red. Keep a sheet of plain white paper in your test kit.

After taking your sample according to the instructions above:

  1. Add the correct number of drops of OTO to the chlorine side
  2. Add the correct number of drops of phenol red to the pH side
  3. Place your white paper behind the test kit, so you can clearly see the color results
    1. The redder the pH side, the higher the pH
    2. The yellower the chlorine side, the higher the chlorine.
  4. Compare colors to any chart given with your test kit to determine levels

Here’s the one I recommend if you don’t have a testing kit.

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Taylor High Range Swimming Pool Test Kit

This expansive test kit includes nine tests for most pool chemical measurements you need.

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I may earn a commission if you make a purchase, at zero additional cost to you. This in no way impacts my research process or opinions.

How to Use Testing Strips

You use less liquid testing materials than you use test strips. However, the accuracy of the strips can’t be denied, and they often have all the things you need to test in one strip. They are also much easier to use. You’ll go through more, but they’re also cheaper.

Testing strips do the basics, alkalinity, pH, and chlorine. There are test strips for copper, iron, bromine, and salt, as well.

After taking your sample, as explained above:

  1. Take one test strip from the container, dip it into the water, and remove it.
  2. Hold your test strip level test dots up or place it on a level surface for the time recommended (Do not shake it. It’s not a polaroid.).
  3. Match up the colors on the strip to the colors on the packaging.

These test strips are my preferred option.

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AquaChek 7-Way Pool and Spa Test Strips

These are great test strips that test for seven important levels in just a few seconds.

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I may earn a commission if you make a purchase, at zero additional cost to you. This in no way impacts my research process or opinions.

How to Use Digital Testing Kits

Digital testing kits are pretty simple to use. Using these liquid test kits minimizes user error because the digital screen displays your exact results. These tests can read free chlorine and total chlorine, CYA, alkalinity, pH, calcium hardness, and bromine (Not sure what that is? Read my guide on chlorine vs. bromine).

Each digital test kit is a little different, but you’ll want to gather a sample as explained above and follow the instructions for your unit.

There are also apps, but these are calculators and scheduling tools, not testers.

Here’s the digital test kit that I recommend most when people ask me. LaMotte has good options, too, when they are in stock.

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ITS Pool Master Pool Test Kit

If you have the budget to spend on a digital pool test kit, this option from ITS is very good.

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I may earn a commission if you make a purchase, at zero additional cost to you. This in no way impacts my research process or opinions.

Testing for the Basics: pH, Alkalinity, Chlorine, Cyanuric Acid, and Calcium Hardness

Testing for chlorine, pH, and alkalinity are very similar actions. Here, we’ll cover how to test for everything you should.

Testing for Alkalinity

Alkalinity testing measures buffers, your pool’s ability to maintain a steady pH level. If it’s too high, it’s really hard to change pH; if it’s too low, pH will change very often. People can change the pH simply by going into the water if there’s no buffer.

Testing alkalinity first is the best practice, as it affects your ability to change pH. However, if your pH is below 7.0, you want to raise it first and then test alkalinity again.

If you use test strips, then the chances are that they test for this. Follow the instructions for how to use the test strips above. If you purchase a liquid testing kit, it’s more complex.

After taking the water sample, as explained above, you will use three testing liquids at different times.

  1. Read your test’s instructions, know how many drops of the first two test liquids, and how much water you need.
  2. Add first test liquid drops to the water, Sodium Thiosulfate, and swirl to mix.
  3. Add the second, the total alkalinity test liquid, and swirl to mix until the color is green.
  4. Add drops of the sulphuric acid one at a time, counting and circling each in until the color changes to red.
  5. Take the number of sulphuric acid drops and multiply by 10 to tell you the total alkalinity. Eight drops mean an 80 total alkalinity (measured in ppm), which is low, and ten drops (100) is on the higher end of the acceptable range.
  6. Take action to raise or lower your alkalinity if needed.

Use my alkalinity calculator to help you get in the ideal range.

Testing for pH, Cyanuric Acid, Calcium Hardness, and Chlorine

We’ve already discussed the importance of testing for chlorine and pH. Calcium hardness is also known as water hardness. Hard water can leave deposits on your pool, in your filter, and in the plumbing.

Cyanuric acid is a protectant; it keeps your sanitizer safe from the sun’s UV rays. However, too much of it can cause your chlorine itself to work so slowly that it can’t sanitize your pool. Conversely, too much chlorine in your pool can pose some fabric fading and health risks. Use my pool chlorine calculator and stabilizer calculator to help you get your sanitizer in the correct range. I also have an entire article on how to test cyanuric acid in your pool.

If your pH levels are too low (the ideal range is 7.2-7.4), make sure to take the proper steps to raise your pH level to the right range. You can use my pH calculator for that.

Depending on the type of testing media, either strips or liquids, follow the directions outlined above for using your test kit.

Here are the other chemical levels you should aim for.

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Testing for Copper

Copper and iron are both metals; they come into your pool in many ways. However, low acid levels are associated with rising levels of metals in your pool. Most test strips for pools don’t test for copper or iron, but test strips that do generally test for both.

Follow the directions above for strips or a liquid test kit.

Schedule for Testing Pool Water for Copper

Once a month. If you have a low pH test, you may want to test at that time, also.

Testing for Iron

If you get too much iron in your water, your pool will turn brown with rust stains. Low pH levels can accompany iron being introduced into your pool. As stated above, you’ll need special strips for this and a special liquid. However, the testing is much the same as your weekly tests.

Schedule for Testing Pool Water for Iron

Once a month. You should test if you notice a brown coloration or have a low pH reading.

Testing for Calcium

This is the same as testing for calcium hardness or water hardness.

Schedule for Testing Pool Water for Calcium

Once a month.

Testing for Phosphates

This one is simple, you can test for phosphates, but you don’t ever need to. Phosphates, while they are food for algae, are naturally occurring, so lowering them won’t help you avoid an algae bloom.

Schedule for Testing Pool Water for Phosphates

None, it’s not necessary, but you can do it if you want to.

Testing for Salt

You only test for salt if you have a saltwater pool. Too much salt can cause your salt chlorination to go crazy, producing too much chlorine. Too little, and it won’t make enough to sanitize your pool. Salt test kits come in liquid and strips, also. If you have a saltwater pool that is turning green, you likely have an algae problem.

Schedule for Testing Pool Water for Salt

You should test your salt levels monthly. However, if you add water, have a rainstorm, or have heavy use, those are all reasons to test immediately. For more, read my complete guide on how to test the salt level in your pool.

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What order do you test pool water? ›

Save yourself time and effort by following this order:
  1. Total alkalinity.
  2. pH.
  3. Calcium hardness.
  4. Cyanuric acid.
  5. Chlorine.

What is the most reliable way to test pool water? ›

If you're looking for the best way to test pool water, using a liquid test kit is advised. These testing kits offer the most accurate readings. And, while using them may be a bit more involved than using test strips, they are still relatively user-friendly.

Do you balance alkalinity or pH first? ›

Test alkalinity, along with pH and calcium hardness, a few times a week. Because alkalinity can have such a big influence on the pH balance, it's important to always adjust the alkalinity first.

How long should pool run before testing water? ›

You should run the circulation system on your pool for 72 hours prior to conducting your initial pool water test.

How deep to test pool water? ›

Remember, it should be elbow-length deep and toward the middle of the pool. Make sure the water has reached the appropriate alkalinity line. This line is usually found about halfway down the pH vial. Some test kits will provide you with a separate vial to test alkalinity.

How do you accurately test water? ›

Consider Testing Through an EPA-Certified Lab

Although there are numerous DIY water quality testing kits on the market, the scope and accuracy of the rests may not always be reliable. For that reason, the EPA recommends testing your water through a certified lab.

What does baking soda do for a pool? ›

Baking soda, also known as sodium bicarbonate is naturally alkaline, with a pH of 8. When you add baking soda to your pool water, you will raise both the pH and the alkalinity, improving stability and clarity.

What is the most accurate way to test chlorine? ›

Digital Colorimeters

Digital colorimeters are the most accurate way to measure free chlorine and/or total chlorine residual in the field in developing countries.

Should I add chlorine if pH is high? ›

Chlorine & pH Level in Pool

For the chlorine to work properly you will want to maintain your pool's pH level between 7.4 to 7.6. If the pool's pH level is 8 or higher it is important to lower the pH along with the chlorine. High levels of pH and chlorine can damage the pool, the filtering system and even the swimsuit.

What is the correct pH for a swimming pool? ›

Aim for a pH level of between 7 and 7.6. If the water pH is higher than 8, anyone who swims in the pool is at risk of skin rashes, while a pH of lower than 7 can sting swimmers' eyes. Some of the many factors that can affect your pool's pH level include heavy rain, the number of swimmers in the pool and chemicals.

What does your pool look like if the pH is too high? ›

You'll know your pH is too high when your pool water is cloudy, there is scale build up on your pool walls and your chlorine is no longer successfully sanitizing your pool.

Should you test pool water before or after shock? ›

Remember to test the water before adding shock. The pH should ideally be low when shocking the pool (around 7.2) because shocking the pool will raise the pH level.

What is the most accurate way to test chlorine in a pool? ›

DPD tests usually measure chlorine, pH, alkalinity, stabilizer and hardness. OTO-Phenol kits test for chlorine and pH. Pool test kits can be more time-consuming than test strips. However, they are typically more accurate.

How long after adding chlorine can you test? ›

It takes about 24 hours for the chemicals to properly circulate in order to get an effective reading from the retest. The water test will assess the pH, chlorine, total alkalinity and calcium hardness.

What is the most accurate way to test pool chemicals? ›

Pool test strips provide accurate readings of your pool's chemistry. In fact, pool test strips are a more reliable method of testing your pool water than a liquid test kit. Pool test strips eliminate the risk of human error.

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